- OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in endometrial adenocarcinomas (as a potential prognostic indicator before treatment) in imprint smears and to correlate the results with clinicopathological parameters of primary untreated endometrial cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 126 patients with endometrial carcinoma were evaluated with samples freshly resected after a total abdominal hysterectomy during a 29-month period. The expression of PTEN was assessed by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: In total, 102 cases were type I and 24 type II endometrial adenocarcinomas. High expression of PTEN was more frequent in type I (42/102) compared to type II (6/24) adenocarcinomas, to less advanced and aggressive clinical stage (stage I: 41/79, stage II: 5/13, stage III: 2/19, stage IV: 1/15) as well as in low grade (grade 1: 26/42, grade 2: 20/57) compared to high-grade (grade 3: 8/27) carcinomas. The nonaffected lymph nodes showed high expression of PTEN (in 43.3%) than the affected lymph nodes (in 5.9%). Also, in 45 out of 74 cases with myometrial invasion <50%, there was positive expression of PTEN in contrast to 12 out of 52 cases with depth of myometrial invasion >50%. CONCLUSIONS: Immunocytochemical findings from PTEN stain, in addition to cytomorphological features, appeared to be a useful marker in the diagnosis and in the postoperative prognosis of endometrial carcinoma in endometrial cytology with imprint smears and that high PTEN expression is related to morphological features of less aggressiveness tumours.